|African Cities Can Become More Sustainable By Managing Water Better - World Bank|
|Monday, 10 December 2012 15:38|
As Africa urbanises at a faster rate than any other region in the world, a more integrated approach to urban water management is needed to solve complex water challenges in Africa’s teeming, thirsty cities, making them more sustainable and resilient, says a World Bank report presented at the AfriCities Summit in Dakar, Senegal.
A press release from the World Bank made available to the Ghana News Agency (GNA) said the report collates lessons of experiences from 31 cities in Africa and globally, and shows how such approaches are leading to home-grown innovative solutions that could help guide the design of plans elsewhere.
It said the World Bank report: “The Future of Water in Africa's Cities: Why Waste Water?” aims to change the way policy makers think about urban water management, planning, and project design in Africa.
It said the report argued that by adopting Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) approaches, policy makers in African cities had a real chance to address diverse issues such as increased competition for water with upstream water users, improve urban planning by understanding water’s interaction with other sectors, and in the face of a changing climate, secure resilience in an uncertain future by relying on a diversity of water sources.
“Solving the challenge of urban water management is critical to unlocking the economic potential of Africa’s cities and improving the lives of city residents,” it quoted Alexander Bakalian, World Bank Sector Manager for Urban Development and Services in the Africa Region.
“We need to understand how water is linked across sectors and innovate in the way we do project planning and implementation. It is noteworthy that some cities in Africa have started to consider integrated planning of water resources as part of their city development strategies”, said the release.
It said African cities were growing at 3.9 per cent annually, the highest in the world, and existing water management systems could not keep up with growing demand.
The release said studies projected that over the next 25 years, water demand would almost quadruple — a much faster growth rate than any other region in the world.
It emphasised that currently, about 320 million Africans lived in urban areas, a number projected to rise to 654 million by 2030.
It said population growth and growing water needs – for municipal, industrial, and ecological purposes – will all combine to put greater pressure on already scarce and dwindling water resources.
“The IUWM approach seeks to improve urban water systems by urging policy makers to adopt a holistic view of all components of the urban water cycle and ask critical questions such as: How is upstream land use and irrigation impacting water availability and quality downstream? Are pit latrines and poor sanitation conditions contaminating groundwater? Is solid waste clogging drains and thus causing flooding? Does water for street cleaning and parks have to be potable? Is water optimised for its multiple uses – drinking irrigation, and manufacturing? Policymakers should recognise that IUWM is about “doing things differently,” rather than about “doing different things”, the release stated.
It said urban water infrastructure in the future will look quite different compared to now. "It will consider water scarcity and quality, as well as energy use and generation in an entirely different way,” it quoted Julia Bucknall, Sector Manager, Water Unit at the World Bank.
“While most cities in Europe and North America will have to rebuild, the fast-growing cities of Africa have a chance to do it right first time. This will require bold leadership but we have seen many African leaders who see the opportunities this new approach offers and we are excited to support them", it added.
According to the release the book provides examples of how African cities can implement IUWM approaches leading to innovative solutions.
It mentioned that in Windhoek, Namibia, driven by pressures on water resources, 26 per cent of Windhoek’s water supply came from waste-water reuse making the city one of the few systems in the world that recycles treated waste-water for drinking water.
The release also said in Arua, Uganda a low-tech system was being proposed to treat waste-water in the expanding outskirts of the city.
It said the system would combine decentralised waste-water treatment systems (DEWATS) with soil aquifer treatment (SAT).
“An integrated approach for reducing leakages, better management of water demand, storm water and rainwater harvesting, and grey water recycling could provide added flexibility and resilience for the city of Nairobi, Kenya.”
According to the release the study is part of a larger IUWM effort funded by the World Bank’s Water Partnership Program (WPP) which is financing development of a conceptual framework and guidelines for implementation, as well as pilots on IUWM approaches in other large cities in Latin America and the Caribbean and Europe and Central Asia.
“The dissemination of the lessons from pilots has sparked interest by several cities such as Nairobi and Sao Paulo that are planning to use World Bank funds to incorporate IUWM principles into pilot projects,” the release stated.